Experimental Investigation of Mechanical Behavior of Improved Marly Soil Using Nano Calcium Carbonate

Document Type : Original Manuscript

Authors

1 Islamic Azad University, Estahban Branch, Iran

2 Islamic Azad University, Estahban Branch, Shiraz, Iran

Abstract

One of the problematic soil types that is found in wide areas in the world is marl soils. This soil type is more sensitive to erosion and requires modifications in pavement construction processes. In this research, mixed soil-Nano-CaCo3 was considered. For this purpose, 0.3 to 2.7% Nano-CaCo3, by specific dry weight, was combined with marl soils in 0.3% increments. To analyse the geotechnical properties of marl soil, optimum water content for soil compaction, maximum dry density, uniaxial compressive strength, California Bearing Ratio (CBR) and the consolidation test were investigated. The results showed dry unit weight increases with increasing Nano-CaCo3 content up to 2.2%. Furthermore, the CBR of modified marl soil with 2% Nano-CaCo3 is 2.7 times greater than the initial CBR; it increased from 6 to 15.5 by adding up to 2% Nano-CaCo3. Moreover, adding Nano-CaCo3 to marl soil increased the uniaxial compressive stress. The optimum percentage of Nano-CaCo3 was 2%, which increased the compression strength about 1.4 times. Besides, with increasing Nano-CaCo3 up to 2.2%, the amount of void ratio decreases from 0.46 to 0.35. Additionally, the compression index Cc and swelling Index Cs are almost constant and equal to 0.09 and 0.03, respectively.

Keywords


  1. BARTH, T. F. W., CORRENS, C.W., ESKOLA, P., 1939. Die enstehung early hydration of the system. Springer, Berlin.
  2. BEHNOOD, A. 2018. Soil and clay stabilization with calcium-and non-calcium-based additives: A state-of-the-art review of challenges, approaches and techniques. Transportation Geotechnics, 17, 14-32.
  3. BELL, F. 1996. Lime stabilization of clay minerals and soils. Engineering geology, 42, 223-237.
  4. BELL, F. G. 2013. Foundation engineering in difficult ground, Elsevier.
  5. BOUMA, N. & IMESON, A. 2000. Investigation of relationships between measured field indicators and erosion processes on badland surfaces at Petrer, Spain. Catena, 40, 147-171.
  6. CHANGIZI, F. & HADDAD, A. 2015. Strength properties of soft clay treated with mixture of nano-SiO2 and recycled polyester fiber. Journal of rock mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 7, 367-378.
  7. CHOOBBASTI, A. J. & KUTANAEI, S. S. 2017. Microstructure characteristics of cement-stabilized sandy soil using nanosilica. Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 9, 981-988.
  8. CHOOBBASTI, A. J., SAMAKOOSH, M. A. & KUTANAEI, S. S. 2019. Mechanical properties soil stabilized with nano calcium carbonate and reinforced with carpet waste fibers. Construction and Building Materials, 211, 1094-1104.
  9. GUILLET, G. R. 1969. . Marl in Ontario. . Department of mines, Reardon,.
  10. HOOSHMAND, B., SOLOMON, A., KåREHOLT, I., RUSANEN, M., HäNNINEN, T., LEIVISKä, J., WINBLAD, B., LAATIKAINEN, T., SOININEN, H. & KIVIPELTO, M. 2012. Associations between serum homocysteine, holotranscobalamin, folate and cognition in the elderly: a longitudinal study. Journal of internal medicine, 271, 204-212.
  11. ISMAIL NEJAD, L., RAMAZANPOUR, H., SHABANPOUR, M. & BAKHSHIPOUR, R. Physical and chemical factors affecting the development of the gully and badlands of southern part of Gilan province.  Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of Soil Science, Tehran University, Iran, 2007. 1213-1215.
  12. JAFARI ARDEKANI, A., PARTOVI, A., PAYRAVAN, H. R. & GHODDOUSI, J. 2002. Effect of gypsum on runoff and erosion in various slopes of unstable soils (1994-19998).
  13. KHAJEHZADEH, M., TAHA, M. R., EL-SHAFIE, A. & ESLAMI, M. 2011. Modified particle swarm optimization for optimum design of spread footing and retaining wall. Journal of zhejiang university-science A, 12, 415-427.
  14. KHALID, N., MUKRI, M., KAMARUDIN, F., GHANI, A. H. A., ARSHAD, M. F., SIDEK, N., JALANI, A. Z. A. & BILONG, B. 2015. Effect of nanoclay in soft soil stabilization. InCIEC 2014. Springer.
  15. LI, W., HUANG, Z., CAO, F., SUN, Z. & SHAH, S. P. 2015. Effects of nano-silica and nano-limestone on flowability and mechanical properties of ultra-high-performance concrete matrix. Construction and Building Materials, 95, 366-374.
  16. LIU, X., CHEN, L., LIU, A. & WANG, X. 2012. Effect of nano-CaCO3 on properties of cement paste. Energy procedia, 16, 991-996.
  17. MAJEED, Z. H. & TAHA, M. R. 2013. A review of stabilization of soils by using nanomaterials. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 7, 576-581.
  18. MANIKANDAN, A. & MOGANRAJ, M. 2014. Consolidation and rebound characteristics of expansive soil by using lime and bagasse ash. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, 3, 403-411.
  19. MENG, T., QIANG, Y., HU, A., XU, C. & LIN, L. 2017. Effect of compound nano-CaCO3 addition on strength development and microstructure of cement-stabilized soil in the marine environment. Construction and Building Materials, 151, 775-781.
  20. RAO, D. K., PRANAV, P. & ANUSHA, M. 2011. Stabilization of expansive soil with rice husk ash, lime and gypsum–an experimental study. International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 3, 8076-8085.
  21. SABAT, A. K. 2012. Utilization of bagasse ash and lime sludge for construction of flexible pavements in expansive soil areas. Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 17, 1037-1046.
  22. SATO, T. & BEAUDOIN, J. 2011. Effect of nano-CaCO3 on hydration of cement containing supplementary cementitious materials. Advances in Cement Research, 23, 33-43.
  23. SATO, T. & BEAUDOIN, J. J. 2019. Effect of nano-CaCO3 on hydration of cement containing supplementary cementitious materials. ICE Themes Low Carbon Concrete. ICE Publishing.
  24. SOKOUTI, R. & RAZAGI, S. 2015. Erodibility and loss of marl drived soils. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 4, 279-286.
  25. SUPIT, S. W. & SHAIKH, F. U. 2014. Effect of nano-CaCO3 on compressive strength development of high volume fly ash mortars and concretes. Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, 12, 178-186.
  26. TABARSA, A., LATIFI, N., MEEHAN, C. L. & MANAHILOH, K. N. 2018. Laboratory investigation and field evaluation of loess improvement using nanoclay–A sustainable material for construction. Construction and Building Materials, 158, 454-463.
  27. TAHA, M. R. & TAHA, O. M. E. 2012. Influence of nano-material on the expansive and shrinkage soil behavior. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 14, 1190.