The possible use of Sewage Sludge Ash (SSA) in Self-Consolidating Concrete (SCC) for environmental sustainability


1 Department of Civil Engineering, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran.

2 Faculty of Civil Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran.


Nowadays, waste production is increased due to the growth of technology and excessive use of natural resources as well as production of new chemicals, among which the hazardous wastes are no exception of that stabilization and solidification method is one of the hazardous waste management methods through which the waste materials are stabilized and confined. High flexibility for various pollutant compounds, ease of use, and being economical for large volumes of waste has led researchers to use this method to treat various wastes. In this research, sludge ash from sewage treatment plantsuses as waste in order to perform the stabilization and solidification process. Nine mix designs with a water to cement ratio of 0.46; and 0, 6, and 10 percent dried sludge residue of the Alborz Industrial City in Qazvin as the replacement of fine aggregate; 0, 2, and 4 percent of silica fume; and cement content of 600 kg/m3are produced. The mini slump flow, mini V-funnel, compressive strength, electrical resistancetests were carried out on the solidified samples to investigate the effect of waste on the performance of the mortar.The results show that the use of this waste as a substitute for fine aggregate could be taken into consideration.


[1]     LaGrega, Michael D., Phillip L. Buckingham, and Jeffrey C. Evans. Hazardous waste management. Waveland Press, 2010.‏

[2]     EPA Method 1311, "Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure Test Method for Evaluation of Solid Wastes, Physical and Chemical Methods", SW846, Prepared by Environmental Protection Agancy, US, 2003.

[3]     M., NaminiEbadi, T., “Reducing the source of hazardous waste and managing it through chemical treatment”, First Conference on Environmental Engineering, University of Tehran, 2006.

[4]     Shapouri, V., “stabilization and solidification of hazardous waste (heavy metals) using constructional material”, Master Thesis, University of Amirkabir, Tehran, 2006.

[5]     Means, Jeffrey L. Smith, et al. The] application of solidification/stabilization to waste materials. No. TP995 M48. 1995.‏

[6]     Abdoli, M., JaliliGhazizadeh, M., SamiyiFard, R., “Hazardous waste management”, Tehran University Press, Iran, 2010.

[7]     Ebrahimi, M., Shamabadi, N., “Investigating the status and types of special wastes in Qom province”, The 4th National Conference on Waste Management, Environmental Protection Agency, Mashhad, Iran, 2008.

[8]     Spence, Roger D., and Caijun Shi, eds. Stabilization and solidification of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes. CRC press, 2004.‏

[9]     Cullinane, M. J., Jones, L. W., Malone, P. G., "Handbook for Stabilization/ Solidification of Hazardous Waste", First Report, Prepared for USEPA; Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, Ohio, US, 1986.

[10] Batchelor, B. "Overview of waste stabilization with cement." Waste management 26.7: 689-698, 2006.‏               

[11] Zhou, Q., N. B. Milestone, and M. Hayes. "An alternative to Portland cement for waste encapsulation—the calcium sulfoaluminate cement system." Journal of hazardous materials 136.1: 120-129, 2006.‏

[12] Karamalidis, Athanasios K., and Evangelos A. Voudrias. "Leaching and immobilization behavior of Zn and Cr from cement-based stabilization/solidification of ash produced from incineration of refinery oily sludge." Environmental Engineering Science 26.1: 81-96, 2009.‏

[13] Zhang, Min, and Eric J. Reardon. "Removal of B, Cr, Mo, and Se from wastewater by incorporation into hydrocalumite and ettringite." Environmental science & technology 37.13: 2947-2952, 2003.‏

[14] Asavapisit, Suwimol, WeenaNanthamontry, and ChongrakPolprasert. "Influence of condensed silica fume on the properties of cement-based solidified wastes." Cement and concrete research 31.8: 1147-1152, 2001.‏

[15] Coz, A., et al. "Influence of commercial and residual sorbents and silicates as additives on the stabilisation/solidification of organic and inorganic industrial waste." Journal of hazardous materials 164.2: 755-761, 2009.‏

[16] Shi, Hui-Sheng, and Li-Li Kan. "Leaching behavior of heavy metals from municipal solid wastes incineration (MSWI) fly ash used in concrete." Journal of hazardous materials 164.2: 750-754, 2009‏.

[17] Park, Jong Soo, Young Jun Park, and Jong Heo. "Solidification and recycling of incinerator bottom ash through the addition of colloidal silica (SiO 2) solution." Waste Management 27.9: 1207-1212, 2007.‏

[18] Aubert, J. E., B. Husson, and A. Vaquier. "Use of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash in concrete." Cement and Concrete Research 34.6: 957-963, 2004

[19] Foladori, Paola, Gianni Andreottola, and GiulianoZiglio. Sludge reduction technologies in wastewater treatment plants. IWA publishing, 2010.‏


[20] Davis, R. D. "The impact of EU and UK environmental pressures on the future of sludge treatment and disposal." Water and Environment Journal 10.1 (1996): 65-69.‏

[21] ASTM C150/C150M-12. Standard specification for Portland cement. West Conshohocken (PA, US): ASTM International; 2012.

[22] S. EFNARC, Guidelines for Self-Consolidating Concrete, Association House, London, UK, 2005.

[23] Felekoğlu, Burak, SelçukTürkel, and BülentBaradan. "Effect of water/cement ratio on the fresh and hardened properties of self-consolidating concrete." Building and Environment 42.4 (2007): 1795-1802.‏

[24] ASTM-C1611. Standard test method for slump flow of self-consolidating concrete. West Conshohocken (PA, US): ASTM International; 2010.

[25] Ghahramani, Gh.,Tadayon, M., Azarioun, A., “Different techniques for measuring the electrical resistance of concrete”, The first international congress of non-osmosis concretes - water storage tanks, Rasht, Iran, 2011.

[26] RILEM, CPC-11,2. Absorption of water by concrete by capillarity.TC14-CPC, 1982, RILEM technical recommendations for the testingand use of construction materials, International Union of Testing and Research Laboratories for Materials and Structures, E&FN Spon 1994.

[27] Spence, Roger D., and Caijun Shi, eds. Stabilization and solidification of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes. CRC press, 2004.‏

[28] Mijno, Violaine, et al. "Compositional changes in cement-stabilized waste during leach tests—comparison of SEM/EDX data with predictions from geochemical speciation modeling." Journal of colloid and interface science 280.2: 465-477, 2004.‏

[29] Malviya, Rachana, and RubinaChaudhary. "Factors affecting hazardous waste solidification/stabilization: a review." Journal of Hazardous Materials 137.1: 267-276, 2006.‏

[30] Pereira, C. Fernández, et al. "Long and short-term performance of a stabilized/solidified electric arc furnace dust." Journal of hazardous materials 148.3: 701-707, 2007.‏

[31] Galiano, Y. Luna, C. Fernández Pereira, and J. Vale. "Stabilization/solidification of a municipal solid waste incineration residue using fly ash-based geopolymers." Journal of hazardous materials 185.1: 373-381, 2011.‏

[32] Ettler, Vojtěch, et al. "Leaching of APC residues from secondary Pb metallurgy using single extraction tests: the mineralogical and the geochemical approach." Journal of hazardous materials 121.1: 149-157, 2005.‏

[33] Luo, Huan-Lin, Wei-Che Chang, and Deng-Fong Lin. "The effects of different types of nano-silicon dioxide additives on the properties of sludge ash mortar." Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 59.4: 440-446, 2009.‏

[34] Chen, Jian-Shiuh, et al. "Engineering and environmental characterization of municipal solid waste bottom ash as an aggregate substitute utilized for asphalt concrete." Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 20.6: 432-439, 2008.‏

[35] Lu, Hsing-Cheng, et al. "Stabilization of copper sludge by high-temperature CuFe 2 O 4 synthesis process." Journal of hazardous materials 150.3: 504-509, 2008.‏

[36] Tu, Yao-Jen, et al. "Recycling of Cu powder from industrial sludge by combined acid leaching, chemical exchange and ferrite process." Journal of hazardous materials 181.1: 981-985, 2010.‏

[37] Shapuri, V., “Stabilization and solidifaction of hazardous waste material (heavy metals) using constructional material”, Master Thesis, Amir Kabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran, 2006.

[38] ArevaloAranda, Consuelo Berenice. Leaching test comparison for solidified and stabilized contaminated sediments: Assessment of selected inorganic contaminants. MS thesis. 2008.‏